Stephanie Karst

Stephanie Karst,

Professor

Department: Molecular Genetics & Microbiology
Business Phone: (352) 273-5627
Business Email: skarst@ufl.edu

About Stephanie Karst

Fun Fact: I love baking so much that during the pandemic that my daughter and I ran a bakery out of our house for charity; my signature treats are oatmeal chocolate chip cookies and lemon-blueberry cake. My research focuses on the pathogenesis of noroviruses, innate immune responses to norovirus infection, and molecular mechanisms of norovirus replication. My lab recently revealed that B cells are targeted by both murine and human noroviruses, and found that human noroviruses replicate in B cells in vitro. During these studies, we discovered that norovirus infection is enhanced by commensal bacteria hoping it will represent a major breakthrough for the norovirus field. An immediate goal is to elucidate host and viral factors that regulate human norovirus infection. This information will provide key insight into critical host-virus interactions that can be targeted in future therapeutic and prevention strategies. Our other immediate goal is to determine the impact of bacterial engagement on norovirus infection, both mechanistically at the cellular level and immunologically at the organismal level. Our overall research program aims to contribute to norovirus vaccine and antiviral drug development in the long term.

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Teaching Profile

Courses Taught
2020-2025
GMS7133 Advanced Molecular Virology
2014-2025
GMS6121 Infectious Diseases
2019-2020,2022-2024
GMS6034 Advanced Virology I: Genetics and RNA
2018
GMS7979 Advanced Research
2018
GMS7980 Research for Doctoral Dissertation
2018
GMS6035 Advanced Virology II: RNA Viruses
2018,2024-2025
BMS6300 Fund Micro and Immuno
2023
BMS6634 GI and Hepatology

Research Profile

Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID)

0000-0003-0406-4637

Publications

2024
Correction for Rasmussen et al., “Virology-the path forward”.
Journal of virology. 98(3) [DOI] 10.1128/jvi.00074-24. [PMID] 38334328.
2024
Metabolic immaturity of newborns and breast milk bile acid metabolites are the central determinants of heightened neonatal vulnerability to norovirus diarrhea.
bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology. [DOI] 10.1101/2024.05.01.592031. [PMID] 38746153.
2024
The reversible activation of norovirus by metal ions.
Journal of virology. 98(2) [DOI] 10.1128/jvi.01735-23. [PMID] 38236007.
2024
Virology-the path forward.
Journal of virology. 98(1) [DOI] 10.1128/jvi.01791-23. [PMID] 38168672.
2023
Age-associated features of norovirus infection analysed in mice
Nature Microbiology. 8(6):1095-1107 [DOI] 10.1038/s41564-023-01383-1. [PMID] 37188813.
2023
Infection of neonatal mice with the murine norovirus strain WU23 is a robust model to study norovirus pathogenesis
Lab Animal. 52(6):119-129 [DOI] 10.1038/s41684-023-01166-5. [PMID] 37142696.
2023
Murine Norovirus: Additional Protocols for Basic and Antiviral Studies.
Current protocols. 3(7) [DOI] 10.1002/cpz1.828. [PMID] 37478303.
2023
Regionalization of the antiviral response in the gastrointestinal tract to provide spatially controlled host/pathogen interactions.
mBio. 14(4) [DOI] 10.1128/mbio.02791-22. [PMID] 37260237.
2023
Virology under the Microscope-a Call for Rational Discourse.
Journal of virology. 97(2) [DOI] 10.1128/jvi.00089-23. [PMID] 36700640.
2023
Virology under the Microscope-a Call for Rational Discourse.
mBio. 14(1) [DOI] 10.1128/mbio.00188-23. [PMID] 36700642.
2023
Virology under the Microscope-a Call for Rational Discourse.
mSphere. 8(2) [DOI] 10.1128/msphere.00034-23. [PMID] 36700653.
2022
Environmentally-triggered contraction of the norovirus virion determines diarrheagenic potential.
Frontiers in immunology. 13 [DOI] 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1043746. [PMID] 36389732.
2022
Genome-scale CRISPR screens identify host factors that promote human coronavirus infection
Genome Medicine. 14(1) [DOI] 10.1186/s13073-022-01013-1. [PMID] 35086559.
2022
Human Norovirus Triggers Primary B Cell Immune Activation In Vitro.
mBio. 13(2) [DOI] 10.1128/mbio.00175-22. [PMID] 35404121.
2021
Norovirus evolution in immunodeficient mice reveals potentiated pathogenicity via a single nucleotide change in the viral capsid
PLOS Pathogens. 17(3) [DOI] 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009402. [PMID] 33705489.
2021
The influence of microbiota-derived metabolites on viral infections
Current Opinion in Virology. 49:151-156 [DOI] 10.1016/j.coviro.2021.05.006. [PMID] 34144380.
2020
Infectious Norovirus Is Chronically Shed by Immunocompromised Pediatric Hosts.
Viruses. 12(6) [DOI] 10.3390/v12060619. [PMID] 32516960.
2020
Norovirus infection causes acute self-resolving diarrhea in wild-type neonatal mice
Nature Communications. 11(1) [DOI] 10.1038/s41467-020-16798-1. [PMID] 32528015.
2020
Survival of Human Norovirus Surrogates in Water upon Exposure to Thermal and Non-Thermal Antiviral Treatments.
Viruses. 12(4) [DOI] 10.3390/v12040461. [PMID] 32325896.
2019
Diverse Mechanisms Underlie Enhancement of Enteric Viruses by the Mammalian Intestinal Microbiota.
Viruses. 11(8) [DOI] 10.3390/v11080760. [PMID] 31426458.
2019
Editorial overview: Viruses and the microbiome.
Current opinion in virology. 37:iii-vi [DOI] 10.1016/j.coviro.2019.06.012. [PMID] 31331870.
2019
The intestinal regionalization of acute norovirus infection is regulated by the microbiota via bile acid-mediated priming of type III interferon
Nature Microbiology. 5(1):84-92 [DOI] 10.1038/s41564-019-0602-7. [PMID] 31768030.
2018
Enteric Viruses Hitch a Ride on the Evolutionary Highway.
Cell host & microbe. 23(1):5-6 [DOI] 10.1016/j.chom.2017.12.013. [PMID] 29324229.
2017
The major targets of acute norovirus infection are immune cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue
Nature Microbiology. 2(12):1586-1591 [DOI] 10.1038/s41564-017-0057-7. [PMID] 29109476.
2016
A norovirus detection architecture based on isothermal amplification and expanded genetic systems.
Journal of virological methods. 237:64-71 [DOI] 10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.08.012. [PMID] 27546345.
2016
Norovirus antagonism of B-cell antigen presentation results in impaired control of acute infection.
Mucosal immunology. 9(6):1559-1570 [DOI] 10.1038/mi.2016.15. [PMID] 27007673.
2016
Norovirus mechanisms of immune antagonism.
Current opinion in virology. 16:24-30 [DOI] 10.1016/j.coviro.2015.11.005. [PMID] 26673810.
2016
Recent advances in understanding norovirus pathogenesis.
Journal of medical virology. 88(11):1837-43 [DOI] 10.1002/jmv.24559. [PMID] 27110852.
2016
The influence of commensal bacteria on infection with enteric viruses.
Nature reviews. Microbiology. 14(4):197-204 [DOI] 10.1038/nrmicro.2015.25. [PMID] 26853118.
2016
Viral Safeguard: The Enteric Virome Protects against Gut Inflammation.
Immunity. 44(4):715-8 [DOI] 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.04.004. [PMID] 27096311.
2015
A working model of how noroviruses infect the intestine.
PLoS pathogens. 11(2) [DOI] 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004626. [PMID] 25723501.
2015
Human norovirus culture in B cells.
Nature protocols. 10(12):1939-47 [DOI] 10.1038/nprot.2015.121. [PMID] 26513671.
2015
Identification of a novel cellular target and a co-factor for norovirus infection – B cells & commensal bacteria.
Gut microbes. 6(4):266-71 [DOI] 10.1080/19490976.2015.1052211. [PMID] 25997033.
2015
Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panels: implications for infection control.
Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease. 82(2):154-7 [DOI] 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2015.01.007. [PMID] 25796558.
2015
Regulation of Norovirus Virulence by the VP1 Protruding Domain Correlates with B Cell Infection Efficiency.
Journal of virology. 90(6):2858-67 [DOI] 10.1128/JVI.02880-15. [PMID] 26719276.
2015
Spectrum of outpatient illness in a school-based cohort in Haiti, with a focus on diarrheal pathogens.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 92(4):752-757 [DOI] 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0059. [PMID] 25732684.
2015
The molecular pathology of noroviruses.
The Journal of pathology. 235(2):206-16 [DOI] 10.1002/path.4463. [PMID] 25312350.
2015
Viruses in Rodent Colonies: Lessons Learned from Murine Noroviruses.
Annual review of virology. 2(1):525-48 [DOI] 10.1146/annurev-virology-100114-055204. [PMID] 26958927.
2015
What is the reservoir of emergent human norovirus strains?
Journal of virology. 89(11):5756-9 [DOI] 10.1128/JVI.03063-14. [PMID] 25787285.
2014
Advances in norovirus biology.
Cell host & microbe. 15(6):668-80 [DOI] 10.1016/j.chom.2014.05.015. [PMID] 24922570.
2014
Enteric bacteria promote human and mouse norovirus infection of B cells.
Science (New York, N.Y.). 346(6210):755-9 [DOI] 10.1126/science.1257147. [PMID] 25378626.
2014
The effect of malnutrition on norovirus infection.
mBio. 5(2):e01032-13 [DOI] 10.1128/mBio.01032-13. [PMID] 24595373.
2013
Identification of immune and viral correlates of norovirus protective immunity through comparative study of intra-cluster norovirus strains.
PLoS pathogens. 9(9) [DOI] 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003592. [PMID] 24039576.
2011
Comparative murine norovirus studies reveal a lack of correlation between intestinal virus titers and enteric pathology.
Virology. 421(2):202-10 [DOI] 10.1016/j.virol.2011.09.030. [PMID] 22018636.
2010
Pathogenesis of noroviruses, emerging RNA viruses.
Viruses. 2(3):748-781 [DOI] 10.3390/v2030748. [PMID] 21994656.
2009
Primary high-dose murine norovirus 1 infection fails to protect from secondary challenge with homologous virus.
Journal of virology. 83(13):6963-8 [DOI] 10.1128/JVI.00284-09. [PMID] 19403675.
2009
Type I and type II interferons inhibit the translation of murine norovirus proteins.
Journal of virology. 83(11):5683-92 [DOI] 10.1128/JVI.00231-09. [PMID] 19297466.
2007
Murine norovirus 1 infection is associated with histopathological changes in immunocompetent hosts, but clinical disease is prevented by STAT1-dependent interferon responses.
Journal of virology. 81(7):3251-63 [PMID] 17229692.
2006
Cleavage map and proteolytic processing of the murine norovirus nonstructural polyprotein in infected cells.
Journal of virology. 80(16):7816-31 [PMID] 16873239.
2004
Replication of Norovirus in cell culture reveals a tropism for dendritic cells and macrophages.
PLoS biology. 2(12) [PMID] 15562321.
2003
STAT1-dependent innate immunity to a Norwalk-like virus.
Science (New York, N.Y.). 299(5612):1575-8 [PMID] 12624267.

Grants

May 2023 ACTIVE
The Role of Norovirus Interactions with the Epithelial Barrier in Acute Gastroenteritis
Role: Other
Funding: NATL INST OF HLTH NIAID
Jun 2021 ACTIVE
Elucidation of Pathogenic Mechanisms underlying Norovirus Diarrhea
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: NATL INST OF HLTH NIAID
Dec 2020 ACTIVE
Basic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: NATL INST OF HLTH NIAID
Aug 2020 – May 2024
Using a novel neonatal mouse model to determine mechanisms of norovirus-induced disease
Role: Other
Funding: NATL INST OF HLTH NIAID
Nov 2018 – May 2024
Suppression of Enteric Norovirus Infection by Microbiota-Regulated Bile Acids
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: NATL INST OF HLTH NIAID
Jun 2017 – May 2019
OR-DRPD-ROF2017: Elucidate the Underlying Mechanism by which Commensal Bacteria Stimulate Human Norovirus Infection of B cells
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: UF DSR OPPORTUNITY FUND
Dec 2016 – Nov 2022
Identification of Host and Viral Determinants of Human Norovirus B cell Infection
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: NATL INST OF HLTH NIAID
Apr 2016 – Apr 2018
Refinement of the Human Norovirus B Cell Culture System
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: TAKEDA VACCINES INC
Mar 2016 – Nov 2016
Identification of Host and Viral Determinants of Human Norovirus B cell Infection
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: NATL INST OF HLTH NIAID
Jul 2015 – Jul 2017
Testing Putative Antiviral Compounds for Effectiveness against Human Norovirus Infection of B Cells
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: Chimerix, Inc.
Feb 2015 – Jan 2020
Role of Intestinal Bacteria in Human Norovirus Infection
Role: Principal Investigator
Funding: NATL INST OF HLTH NIAID
Jun 2014 – May 2016
Intestinal Epithelial Cell Contributions to Permissiveness of Norovirus Infection of B cells
Role: Project Manager
Funding: UF DSR OPPORTUNITY FUND

Contact Details

Phones:
Business:
(352) 273-5627
Emails:
Business:
skarst@ufl.edu
Addresses:
Business Mailing:
PO Box 100266
GAINESVILLE FL 32610